After Oswaldo Cruz took the helm of the Federal Serum Therapy Institute in 1902, he oversaw construction of a number of buildings to accommodate research laboratories and facilities where serum and vaccine would be produced. This marked the beginning of the accrual of Fiocruz’s museological heritage.
The collection houses over 2,000 items, ranging from laboratory equipment, material used to produce medication and vaccines, medical instruments, and furniture to the clothing and personal belongings of Fiocruz scientists. There is also a picture gallery. Museum holdings are under the responsibility of the Museum of Life.